Mellor's current research focuses on women writers in Britain in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, with a special interest in the ways in which certain writers (Marianna Starke, Elizabeth Inchbold, Hannah Cowley) developed a more sophisticated and profound concept of "cosmopolitanism" than did their male peers (including Immanuel Kant). They insisted that to be a true cosmopolitan, one must be the hybridized child of a transnational, transracial, and interfaith marriage. She is also working on the ways in which women responded to the scientific revolution of the nineteenth century, calling attention to the arrogance of the master-narratives of natural history promoted by Gilbert White, Linnaeus and Buffon (in the case of Charlotte Smith) and of physical chemistry promoted by Sir Humphrey Davy (in the case of Mary Shelley's Frankenstein). Professor Mellor regularly discovers and promotes the works of non-canonical women writers in her teaching and research, most recently the work of the Whig historian Lucy Aikin, who revised the account of human creation in Genesis (in her Epistles on Women, 1810) to suggest that it was Cain, rather than Eve, who caused the fall from paradise. She recently completed a study of the female-authored British elegy (1660–1830) for the Oxford Handbook of the Elegy, which analyzes the ways in which women grieve differently from men, both in practice and in verse.